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The rolling diameter is the combined size of the wheel and tyre. Keeping the same rolling diameter is important when fitting larger wheels, as wherever possible the tyre profile (height of the sidewall) should be decreased to countermeasure the increase in rim size. If the rolling diameter is increased, the wheel will rotate less per mile than the standard combination and cause the speedometer and odometer to under-read, so for each mile the car covers, the odo will record just under a mile.
Measurement of a tyre's sidewall hight as a percentage of the width. Also known as Profile. A 195/45 tyre has an aspect ratio of 45%, meaning that the sidewall height is 45% of 195mm - 87.75mm. This is for the diameter of the wheel so a combination of the sidewall height either side of the wheel centre.
See Aspect Ratio.